MIGRATION

Migration is the permanent relocation of a person or family to another place for the purpose of settling down.

Internal migration
Internal migration is when persons relocate to a different residence in a country.

International migration
International migration is when people leave their country to settle down in another country.

Net migration
Net migration is the difference between immigration (people coming into the country) and emigration (people leaving the country).  Net migration may be positive or negative. When it is positive the population increases when it is negative the population decreases.
 
FACTORS OF MIGRATION
 
Push factors
This refers to conditions that exist within a location (e.g. rural communities) that limit personal growth, welfare as well as opportunities for employment and better standards of living. In many cases, people feel pushed to go elsewhere to find jobs as they are not available where they live.

This phenomenon is often seen with people leaving rural communities to settle down in urban areas. Towns and cities have more commercial activities and more job opportunities.  
Some push factors are:
Inadequate educational opportunities
Lack of housing
Natural disasters
Low paying or lack of jobs
High cost of living
Discrimination
Political instability
 
Pull factors
Pull factors refer to a place having more favorable economic, social and infrastructural conditions which attract people to come there to live. North America and Britain are classic examples of countries with pull factors. Many people are attracted to these countries seeking better opportunities to improve their standard of living. 
 
Pull factors include
Job availability
Higher wages
Better infrastructure, roads, housing, electricity etc.
Educational opportunities
Lower crime
Political stability
Technology
EMIGRATION
 
Emigration is the movement of people from a country where they are citizens to another country to settle down.
 
IMMIGRATION
Immigration refers to the arrival of individuals into the country in order to settle down.
 
URBANIZATION
Urbanization is the mass migration of people from rural areas to urban areas. People are attracted to urban areas because of:
 
Job availability
Higher wages
Educational reasons (to go to college/university
Availability of better health, schools, housing, and recreational facilities
Entertainment and nightlife
 
The negative impact of urbanization
Overcrowding in cities
Increased pollution
Increased pressure on the educational system
Traffic congestion
Increase in crime
Overpopulated slums
Development of squatter settlement especially in suburban areas

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